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U.S. to Accuse China of Trying to Hack Vaccine Data, as Virus Redirects Cyberattacks

来源:纽约时报    2020-05-11 07:40

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        WASHINGTON — The FBI and the Department of Homeland Security are preparing to issue a warning that China’s most skilled hackers and spies are working to steal American research in the crash effort to develop vaccines and treatments for the coronavirus. The efforts are part of a surge in cybertheft and attacks by nations seeking advantage in the pandemic.        华盛顿——联邦调查局和国土安全部准备发出警告,称为了快速研发新冠病毒疫苗和治疗手段,中国最尖端的黑客和间谍正在窃取美国的研究成果。各国都在大流行期间努力寻求优势,相应的网络盗窃和攻击也随之激增。
        The warning comes as Israeli officials accuse Iran of mounting an effort in late April to cripple water supplies as Israelis were confined to their houses, though the government has offered no evidence to back its claim. More than a dozen countries have redeployed military and intelligence hackers to glean whatever they can about other nations’ virus responses. Even U.S. allies like South Korea and nations that do not typically stand out for their cyber abilities, like Vietnam, have suddenly redirected their state-run hackers to focus on virus-related information, according to private security firms.        该警告发出的同时,以色列官员也指责伊朗在4月底以色列人被禁足在家中时,试图破坏该国的供水,尽管政府没有提供任何证据来支持这个说法。十几个国家已重新部署了军事和情报黑客,尽可能收集其他国家对病毒的应对。据私人安全公司称,就连韩国等美国盟友,以及通常并不以网络能力见长的越南等国,也突然将政府黑客的攻击目标转移到与病毒相关的信息上。
        A draft of the forthcoming public warning, which officials say is likely to be issued in the days to come, says China is seeking “valuable intellectual property and public health data through illicit means related to vaccines, treatments and testing.” It focuses on cybertheft and action by “nontraditional actors,” a euphemism for researchers and students the Trump administration says are being activated to steal data from inside academic and private laboratories.        即将发布的公开警告草案称,中国正在“通过非法手段,寻求与疫苗、治疗和检测相关的高价值知识产权和公共卫生数据”。官员们表示,该草案可能在未来几天发布。它关注的是网络盗窃和“非传统行为者”的行为,后者是对研究人员和学生的委婉说法,特朗普政府称,他们被中国动员起来,从学术实验室和私人实验室窃取数据。
        The decision to issue a specific accusation against China’s state-run hacking teams, current and former officials said, is part of a broader deterrent strategy that also involves U.S. Cyber Command and the National Security Agency. Under legal authorities that President Donald Trump issued nearly two years ago, they have the power to bore deeply into Chinese and other networks to mount proportional counterattacks. This would be similar to their effort 18 months ago to strike at Russian intelligence groups seeking to interfere in the 2018 midterm elections and to put malware in the Russian power grid as a warning to Moscow for its attacks on U.S. utilities.        现任和前任官员说,对中国国家黑客团队提出具体指控,属于一项全面威慑战略的一部分,美国网络司令部(U.S. Cyber Command)和国家安全局(National Security Agency)也参与其中。根据唐纳德·特朗普总统近两年前授予的法律权力,他们可以深入中国和其他国家的网络,发起相应反击。该行动与18个月前他们打击试图干预2018年中期选举的俄罗斯情报组织的行动类似,当时他们在俄罗斯电网中植入恶意软件,作为对莫斯科攻击美国公共事业的警告。
        But it is unclear exactly what the U.S. has done, if anything, to send a similar shot across the bow to the Chinese hacking groups, including those most closely tied to China’s new Strategic Support Force, its equivalent of Cyber Command, the Ministry of State Security and other intelligence units.        但目前还不清楚,如果美国已经采取行动,那么它究竟向中国黑客组织发出了什么样的类似警告,这些组织当中,有一些同中国新成立的战略支援部队(相当于美国的网络司令部)、国家安全部和其他情报部门关系密切。
        The forthcoming warning is also the latest iteration of a series of efforts by the Trump administration to blame China for being the source of the pandemic and exploiting its aftermath.        特朗普政府不断指责中国是大流行的源头,并且正在利用其后果获利,即将发布的警告就是最新的一项举措。
        Secretary of State Mike Pompeo claimed this month that there was “enormous evidence” that the virus had come from a Chinese lab before backing off to say it had come from the “vicinity” of the lab in Wuhan. U.S. intelligence agencies say they have reached no conclusion on the issue, but public evidence points to a link between the outbreak’s origins at a market in Wuhan and China’s illegal wildlife trafficking.        美国国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)本月声称,有“大量证据”表明病毒来自中国的一个实验室,但他后来又表示,病毒来自武汉实验室的“附近”。美国情报机构说,他们在这个问题上还没有得出结论,但是公开证据显示,此次疫情起源于武汉的一个市场,与中国的非法野生动物走私有关。
        The State Department on Friday described a Chinese Twitter campaign to push false narratives and propaganda about the virus. Twitter executives have pushed back on the agency, noting that some of the Twitter accounts that the State Department cited were actually critical of Chinese state narratives.        美国国务院上周五描述了中国在Twitter上发起的一场运动,目的是推动有关该病毒的虚假叙述和宣传。Twitter公司高管反驳了国务院的说法,他们指出,美国国务院引用的一些Twitter账户实际上是在批评中国政府的叙事。
        But it is the search for vaccines that has been a particular focus, federal officials say.        但联邦官员说,寻找疫苗是一个特别引人瞩目的焦点。
        “China’s long history of bad behavior in cyberspace is well documented, so it shouldn’t surprise anyone they are going after the critical organizations involved in the nation’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic,” said Christopher Krebs, director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency. He added that the agency would “defend our interests aggressively."        “中国在网络空间长期以来的不良行为是有案可查的,因此,他们会追踪我国参与应对新冠病毒大流行的关键组织,这并不让人感到意外。”美国国家网络安全和基础设施安全局(Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency)局长克里斯托弗·克雷布斯(Christopher Krebs)说,他还说,该机构将“积极捍卫我们的利益”。
        Last week, the U.S. and Britain issued a joint warning that “health care bodies, pharmaceutical companies, academia, medical research organizations and local governments” had been targeted. While it named no specific countries — or targets — the wording was the kind used to describe the most active cyberoperators: Russia, China, Iran and North Korea.        此前一周,美国和英国联合发出警告,称“医疗机构、制药公司、学术界、医学研究机构和地方政府”已成为目标。虽然它没有指明具体的国家或目标,但这样的措辞通常是用来描述俄罗斯、中国、伊朗和朝鲜这些最活跃的网络操纵者的。
        The hunt for spies seeking intellectual property has also accelerated. For months, FBI officials have been visiting major universities and presenting largely unclassified briefings about their vulnerabilities.        对知识产权间谍的追踪行动也在加剧。几个月来,联邦调查局官员一直在走访主要大学,并就这些大学的安全漏洞发布了大部分没有保密的简报。
        But some of those academic leaders and student groups have pushed back, comparing the rising paranoia about stolen research to the worst days of the Red Scare era. They particularly objected when Sen. Tom Cotton, R-Ark., declared last month on Fox News that it was “a scandal” that the U.S. had “trained so many of the Chinese Communist Party’s brightest minds to go back to China.”        不过,一些学术领袖和学生团体已经开始反击,他们认为,这种担心研究成果被窃取的多疑心理愈演愈烈,可以同红色恐怖时代最糟糕的日子相提并论。他们尤其反对阿肯色州共和党参议员汤姆·科顿(Tom Cotton)的言论。上个月,他在福克斯新闻(Fox News)上宣称,美国“培训了那么多中国共产党的精英,让他们回到中国”,这是一桩“丑闻”。
        Security experts say that while there is a surge of attacks by Chinese hackers seeking an edge in the race for a COVID-19 vaccine, or even effective treatment, the Chinese are hardly alone in seeking to exploit the virus.        安全专家表示,尽管中国黑客发起了大量攻击,希望在新冠病毒疫苗乃至有效疗法的竞争中占据优势,但中国并非唯一试图利用这种病毒的国家。
        Iranian hackers were also caught trying to get inside Gilead Sciences, the maker of remdesivir, the therapeutic drug approved 10 days ago by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials. Government officials and Gilead have refused to say if any element of the attack, which was first reported by Reuters, was successful.        伊朗黑客被发现试图进入瑞德西韦的制造商吉利德科学(Gilead Sciences)的电脑。10天前,美国食品和药物管理局(Food and Drug Administration)批准对这种药物进行临床试验。该袭击由路透社率先报道,政府官员和吉利德都拒绝透露攻击是否取得了成功。
        Israel’s security advisers met last week for a classified session on a cyberattack on April 24 and 25, which authorities were calling an attempt to cut off water supplies to rural parts of the country. The Israeli news media has widely blamed the attack on Iran, though they have offered no evidence in public. The effort was detected fairly quickly and did no damage, authorities said.        以色列安全顾问上周就该国4月24日和25日遭到的网络攻击举行了秘密会议,当局称这是试图切断该国农村地区的供水。以色列新闻媒体广泛指责这次袭击是伊朗所为,但没有提供证据。当局说,这一行动很快就被发现,没有造成损害。
        The rush to attribute the attack to Iran could be faulty. When a Saudi petrochemical plant was similarly attacked in 2017, Iran was presumed as the source of the effort to cause an industrial accident. It turned out to be coordinated from a Russian scientific institute.        这种急切地将攻击归咎于伊朗做法不一定属实。2017年,沙特一家石化工厂遭遇旨在引发工业事故的类似袭击时,伊朗也被认为是其源头。最后证明该行动是由俄罗斯的一个科学机构组织的。
        The coronavirus has created whole new classes of targets. In recent weeks, Vietnamese hackers have directed their campaigns against Chinese government officials running point on the virus, according to cybersecurity experts.        冠状病毒催生了一个全新的攻击目标类别。网络安全专家说,最近几周,越南黑客攻击了中国政府参与防疫工作的官员。
        South Korean hackers have taken aim at the World Health Organization and officials in North Korea, Japan and the U.S. The attacks appeared to be attempts to compromise email accounts, most likely as part of a broad effort to gather intelligence on virus containment and treatment, according to two security experts for private firms who said they were not authorized to speak publicly. If so, the moves suggest that even allies are suspicious of official government accounting of cases and deaths around the world.        韩国的黑客把目标对准世界卫生组织和朝鲜、日本及美国的官员。据两名声称没有获得公开发言授权的私人公司安全专家说,这些攻击似乎是为了侵入电子邮件账户,很可能是为了广泛收集关于遏制病毒和治疗方面的情报。如果是这样,这些举动表明,即使是盟国也在怀疑政府对全球病例和死亡人数的官方统计。
        In interviews with a dozen current and former government officials and cybersecurity experts over the past month, many described a “free-for-all” that has spread even to countries with only rudimentary cyber ability.        过去一个月来,在对十多位现任和前任政府官员和网络安全专家的采访中,许多人形容这是一场“混战”,甚至蔓延到了网络能力尚不发达的国家。
        “This is a global pandemic, but unfortunately countries are not treating it as a global problem,” said Justin Fier, a former national security intelligence analyst who is now the director of cyberintelligence at Darktrace, a cybersecurity firm. “Everyone is conducting widespread intelligence gathering — on pharmaceutical research, PPE orders, response — to see who is making progress.”        “这是一场全球性的大流行,但不幸的是,各国并没有把它当作一个全球性问题来对待,”前国家安全情报分析师、现任网络安全公司Darktrace的网络情报主管贾斯汀·菲耶尔(Justin Fier)说。“所有国家都在进行广泛的情报收集——关于药物研究、个人防护用品订单、反应——从而了解谁在取得进展。”
        The frequency of cyberattacks and the spectrum of targets are “astronomical, off the charts,” Fier said.        网络攻击的频率和目标范围是“破纪录的天文数字”,菲耶尔说。

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