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特朗普如何应对新冠危机:都怪中国和欧洲
For Trump, a New Crisis and a Familiar Response: It’s China’s Fault, and Europe’s

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-13 05:13



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        WASHINGTON — President Trump’s 30-day suspension of all entry into the United States for most Europeans, his most significant step yet in the halting effort to combat the coronavirus, accelerates his long-brewing divorce from many of America’s traditional allies.        华盛顿——特朗普总统宣布在未来的三十天内禁止大部分欧洲人进入美国,这是迄今他在对抗新冠病毒方面迈出的最重要一步。此举加速了他酝酿已久的与美国许多传统盟友的分离。
        His White House address on Wednesday night was cast in distinctly “America First” terms, seeming to suggest that the United States — acting alone — could halt a scourge that started in China, is ravaging Italy and knows no borders. But perhaps most tellingly, it was announced with no consultation with America’s closest allies, following the same pattern of unilateral action he favored when he announced in 2017 that the United States would pull out of the Paris climate accord and then the Iran nuclear deal the following year.        在周三晚上的白宫演讲中,他使用了明显的“美国优先”措辞,似乎在暗示单方面采取行动的美国可以阻止这场始于中国、肆虐意大利、不受边境制约的灾难。但或许最能说明问题的是,这一举措是在没有同美国最亲密盟友磋商的情况下宣布的,与他在2017年宣布美国将退出《巴黎气候协定》、并在次年退出伊朗核协议时所采取的单边行动如出一辙。
        And it opened yet another wound — one likely to impair cooperation as the virus surges — as the president of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, made clear in a chilly statement.        正如欧盟委员会主席乌苏拉·冯·德·莱恩(Ursula von der Leyen)在一份措辞冷峻的声明中所明确表示的那样,此举留下了又一个伤口——随着病毒感染的激增,这个伤口可能会损害合作。
        “The coronavirus is a global crisis, not limited to any continent, and it requires cooperation rather than unilateral action,” she said in a joint statement with Charles Michel, who heads the European Council. “The European Union disapproves of the fact that the U.S. decision to impose a travel ban was taken unilaterally and without consultation.”        “新冠病毒是一场全球危机,并不局限于任何大陆,它需要合作,而不是单边行动,”她在与欧洲理事会(European Council)主席查尔斯·米歇尔(Charles Michel)发表的联合声明中表示。“欧盟不赞成美国未经协商就单方面实施旅行禁令的决定。”
        To Mr. Trump, of course, this was all about containment, a natural follow-on to his early decision to ban flights from China — a move that many experts agree won the United States crucial time to prepare, even if much of that time was wasted. Back then, the virus was not visibly on American shores.        当然,对特朗普来说,这一切都是为了遏制,是他早先决定禁止中国航班之后的自然结果——许多专家认为,此举为美国赢得了关键的准备时间,尽管很多赢得的时间被浪费了。在那时,这种病毒还没有出现在美国。
        Now, it is. It is spreading indigenously. And because Mr. Trump’s rule allows entry to Americans, legal residents and their families who have been in Europe, it seems to the Europeans to be less about containment than about punishment.        现在,它出现了。它正在本地传播。而且,因为特朗普的规定允许在欧洲的美国人、合法居民及其家人入境,所以这对欧洲人来说更像惩罚而非遏制。
        “The announcement last night about Europe was part of the pattern that there always has to be someone, an outsider, to blame,” said Heather A. Conley, the director of the Europe program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington policy research center. And the exemption for Britain seemed equally perplexing because early this week, there were still direct flights landing there from Milan, the center of the Italian crisis.        “昨晚关于欧洲的声明,属于一种总要归咎于某个外人的一贯做法,”华盛顿政策研究中心战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)欧洲项目主任希瑟·A·康利(Heather A . Conley)说。而对英国的豁免似乎同样令人困惑,因为本周早些时候,仍有从英国直飞意大利危机中心米兰的航班。
        Mr. Trump, of course, had other options.        当然,特朗普还有其他选择。
        He could have used the speech on Wednesday night to talk about joining ranks with the country’s closest allies — Germany, France, other European partners, South Korea and Japan — to counter both the virus and the economic impact. He could have talked about sharing public health data and lessons learned from China’s experience — or South Korea’s.        他本可以利用周三晚上的演讲,与美国最亲密的盟友——德国、法国、其他欧洲伙伴、韩国和日本——一同讨论抗击病毒和经济影响。他本可以讨论分享公共卫生数据,以及吸取中国或韩国的经验教训。
        He could have used the memory of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, when the NATO alliance invoked — for the first time since its creation — Article V of its charter, that an attack on one was an attack on all. He could have roused the alliance to deal together with a common enemy, even an invisible one that could not be bombed.        他本可以回忆一下2001年9月11日的袭击事件,当时北约(NATO)自成立以来首次援引其宪章第五条——对一个国家的袭击被视为对所有成员国的袭击。他本可以唤醒一个共同御敌的联盟,哪怕是对一个看不见的、无法被轰炸的敌人。
        Instead, his instinct was to follow the course he set when he pulled out of the Paris accord, threatened to leave NATO and renounced the Iran nuclear accord. His go-to position is that even the most international of problems can be walled off — and in this case his actions seemed to say that the European alliances are shattered anyway, so they are not worth saving.        相反,他的本能反应是遵循他退出《巴黎协定》、威胁退出北约以及宣布放弃伊朗核协议时设定的路线。他的一贯立场是,即使是最国际化的问题,也可以用墙隔开——在这种情况下,他的行动似乎表明,无论如何,欧洲联盟已经瓦解,因此不值得挽救。
        Mr. Trump defended that approach when he met on Thursday with the Irish prime minister, Leo Varadkar. “We get along very well with the European leaders, but we had to make a decision, and I didn’t want to take time,” Mr. Trump told reporters.        周四会见爱尔兰总理利奥·瓦拉德卡(Leo Varadkar)时,特朗普为自己的做法进行了辩护。“我们和欧洲领导人相处得很好,但我们必须做出决定,我不想花时间,”特朗普对记者说。
        He then compared it to the politics of trade retaliation. “I mean, when they raise taxes on us, they don’t consult us,” he said. “And I think that’s probably one in the same.”        然后他将此事与贸易报复的政治争斗相提并论。“我的意思是,当他们对我们增税时,他们不会向我们咨询,”他说。“我认为这可能是一回事。”
        It was a striking admission of how much communication has shut down over the past three years.        这是对过去三年沟通缺失的一次惊人的承认。
        “I appreciate the fact that this has caught so many governments around the world off-guard,” said Ms. Conley, who served as deputy assistant secretary in the State Department’s Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs.        “我感到这让世界上太多国家政府措手不及,”曾任美国国务院欧洲和欧亚事务局(Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs)副助理国务卿的康利说。
        “In the past, there would have been extraordinary outreach, an effort to issue a joint statement and have mechanisms in place to enforce whatever you announce,” she said. “When you do it this way, you shed doubt on our government’s ability to manage what is happening, and you foster so much ill will that you make it harder to get future cooperation.”        “在过去,会有非常广泛的接触,会努力发表一项联合声明,并建立机制来执行你所宣布的所有东西,”她说。“当你像现在这样做的时候,你会怀疑我们的政府是否有能力处理正在发生的事情,你培养了太多的恶意,让未来的合作变得更加困难。”
        The president’s address appeared to have been a hastily devised move, and Mr. Trump got many of the basic details of his own ban wrong, forcing his aides to backtrack and correct him soon after he got off the air.        总统的演讲似乎是一个仓促设计的举动,特朗普在介绍自己的禁令时存在许多基本细节的错误,迫使他的助手们在他的讲话结束不久后做出更正。
        In fact, everything about the president’s announcement bespoke chaos, according to White House insiders and the allies. In the Situation Room, as the speech was coming together, there were arguments over the wording that banned goods as well as people.        事实上,据白宫内部人士和盟友称,总统公告的每个环节都表明着混乱。在战情室起草讲稿时,还有人在争论关于禁止人入境的同时也禁止了物品的措辞。
        Despite the objections of some top officials, Mr. Trump said the United States “will be suspending all travel from Europe to the United States for the next 30 days,” beginning on midnight Friday, with the exception of travel from Britain.        尽管一些高级官员反对,但特朗普说,从周五午夜开始,美国“将在未来30天内暂停所有从欧洲到美国的交通运输”,但是始于英国的交通运输除外。
        “These prohibitions will not only apply to the tremendous amount of trade and cargo, but various other things as we get approval,” he said. “Anything coming from Europe to the United States is what we are discussing.”        “这些禁令不仅适用于数量巨大的贸易和货物,还适用于我们获得批准的其他各种事物,”他说。“我们说的是从欧洲到美国的一切。”
        Within hours, it turned out that there was no ban on trade, which would have had a huge global economic impact — and would have done little to contain the virus, experts say. A little after 10 p.m., Mr. Trump tweeted: “Trade will in no way be affected by the 30-day restriction on travel from Europe. The restriction stops people not goods.”        几小时后,人们发现原来贸易并没有被禁止。专家说,如果有这样的禁令,将会对全球经济产生巨大影响——也将对遏制病毒毫无帮助。晚上10点刚过,特朗普发布推文说:“贸易肯定不会被30天的欧洲旅行限制所影响。限制阻止的是人而不是货物。”
        That still left confusion over what the president meant when he said the Small Business Administration would “provide capital and liquidity” to businesses, which seemed to go beyond its statutory powers.        当总统表示小企业管理局(Small Business Administration)将为企业“提供资金和流动性”时,人们感到困惑,因为这超出了该机构的法定权力。
        Such details can be worked out, of course, even if the president’s statements need correction. What allies remember, though, is the sense that a nation that once led great coalitions — against Nazi Germany, against the Soviet threat, against Al Qaeda and other terrorists — seems uninterested in a global response in a different kind of crisis.        当然,即使总统的声明需要更正,这种细节也是可以解决的。但是,在盟友的记忆里,这个国家曾经领导了伟大的联盟——反抗纳粹德国、反抗苏联威胁、反抗基地组织和其他恐怖分子——在面对另一种危机时,它似乎对全球应对措施不感兴趣。
        That seemed clear when Mr. Trump’s National Security Council decided, more than a year ago, to merge the office that was preparing for pandemics into one working to limit weapons of mass destruction — two very different problems, requiring vastly different kinds of responses.        这在一年多前就显而易见:特朗普的国家安全委员会(National Security Council)决定把为大流行病做准备的办公室与限制大规模杀伤性武器办公室合并——两个截然不同的问题,需要的应对措施有天壤之别。
        And it seemed clear on Wednesday, when Mr. Trump’s national security adviser, Robert C. O’Brien, both defended the administration’s response to the coronavirus and made clear it was China, not the United States, that deserved any blame for a slow international response.        这在周三也很明显:当时特朗普的国家安全顾问罗伯特·C·奥布莱恩(Robert C. O’Brien)不但对政府的疫情应对做了辩解,还明确指出,在国际回应缓慢这一点上,应受到指责的是中国,不是美国。
        “Unfortunately, rather than using best practices, this outbreak in Wuhan was covered up,” Mr. O’Brien said. “It probably cost the world community two months to respond.” He said China’s initial secrecy and its reluctance to admit officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization slowed the response and the chance to collect more information about the virus.        “不幸的是,武汉的疫情被掩盖了,而不是用最佳方式应对,”奥布莱恩说。“这可能浪费了国际社会两个月的应对时间。”他说,中国最初的遮掩以及不愿意疾控中心和世卫组织官员进入的行为降低了反应的速度,并且减少了收集有关该病毒的更多信息的机会。
        “I think we could have dramatically curtailed both what happened in China and what’s happening across the world,” Mr. O’Brien said. “The way that this started out in China, the way it was handled from the outset, was not right, it should have been handled differently.”         “我认为我们本可以大大减少中国发生的一切以及世界各地发生的一切,”奥布莱恩说。“它是如何在中国出现的,以及初期的错误应对,这些都是不应该发生的,本应以不同的方式处理。”
                
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