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Italy’s Coronavirus Victims Face Death Alone, With Funerals Postponed

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-17 05:41

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        ROME — At around midnight Wednesday, Renzo Carlo Testa, 85, died from the coronavirus in a hospital in the northern Italian town of Bergamo. Five days later, his body was still sitting in a coffin, one of scores lined head to toe in the church of the local cemetery, which is itself closed to the public.        罗马——周三午夜时分,85岁的伦佐·卡洛·泰斯塔(Renzo Carlo Testa)因感染新冠病毒,在意大利北部城市贝加莫的一家医院去世。五天后,他仍然躺在棺材里,在当地公墓的教堂,几十具棺材首尾相连,而公墓已经停止对公众开放。
        His wife of 50 years, Franca Stefanelli, would like to give him a proper funeral. But traditional funeral services are illegal throughout Italy now, part of the national restrictions against gatherings and going out that have been put in place to try to stem the spread of Europe’s worst outbreak of the coronavirus. In any case, she and her sons could not attend anyway, because they are themselves sick and in quarantine.        与他结婚50年的妻子弗兰卡·斯特凡内利(Franca Stefanelli)想为他举办一场体面的葬礼。但目前,传统的丧葬服务在整个意大利都被禁止,为了阻止欧洲最严重的新冠病毒疫情,意大利对聚会和外出采取了限制措施,其中就包括停止传统的殡葬服务。不管怎样,她和几个儿子也是无法参加葬礼的,因为他们自己也染病了,目前处在隔离中。
        “It’s a strange thing,” Stefanelli, 70, said, struggling to explain what she was going through. “It’s not anger. It’s impotence in the face of this virus.”        “这是一件奇怪的事情,”70岁的斯特凡内利不知道该怎么解释自己的遭遇。“这不是愤怒。而是面对这种病毒的无力感。”
        The coronavirus epidemic raging through Italy has already left streets empty and shops shuttered as 60 million Italians are essentially under house arrest. There are the exhausted doctors and nurses toiling day and night to keep people alive. There are children hanging drawings of rainbows from their windows and families singing from their balconies.        肆虐意大利的新冠病毒疫情使街头空无一人,店面关闭,6000万意大利人实际上处于软禁在家的状态。为了挽救生命,疲惫的医务人员没日没夜的忙碌。有孩子在窗户挂起彩虹画,有一些家庭在阳台上唱起了歌。
        But the ultimate metric of pandemics and plagues is the bodies they leave behind. In Italy, with the oldest population in Europe, the toll has been heavy, with more than 2,100 deaths, the most outside of China. On Monday alone, more than 300 people died.        但大流行和瘟疫的最终衡量标准,是它们留下的尸体。在欧洲人口老龄化最为严重的意大利,死亡人数已经超过2100人,是中国之外死亡最多的国家。仅周一一天,就有300多人死亡。
        And the bodies are piling up in the northern region of Lombardy, especially in the province of Bergamo. With 3,760 total cases reported Monday, an increase of 344 cases from the day before, according to officials, it is at the center of the outbreak.        在意大利北部的伦巴第地区,尸体正在堆积,尤其是在贝加莫省。官员表示,在这个疫情中心所在地,周一报告的病例数为3760例,比前一天增加了344例。
        Hospital morgues there are inundated. Bergamo’s mayor, Giorgio Gori, issued an ordinance that closed the local cemetery this week for the first time since World War II, though he guaranteed that its mortuary would still accept coffins. Many of them had been sent to the Church of All Saints in Bergamo, located in the closed cemetery, where scores of waxed wooden coffins form a macabre line for cremations.        医院的太平间尸满为患。贝加莫市长乔治·戈里(Giorgio Gori)本周颁布了一项法令,关闭了当地的公墓,这是自“二战”以来的头一遭,不过他保证,公墓的太平间仍可以存放棺材。其中许多棺材被送到了贝加莫的诸圣教堂,教堂位于一个封闭的墓地内,里面停放了几十具涂了蜡的木棺,排起一条可怖的长队,等候火化。
        “Unfortunately, we don’t know where to put them,” said Brother Marco Bergamelli, one of the priests at the church. He said that with hundreds dying each day, and with each body taking more than an hour to cremate, there was an awful backlog. “It takes time, and the dead are many.”        “不幸的是,我们也不知道该停放在哪里,”教堂的神职人员之一马尔科·贝尔加梅利(Marco Bergamelli)修士说。他表示,每天都有数百人丧生,每具遗体需要一个多小时才能完成火化,所以积压的情况非常严重。“这需要时间,而死者又很多。”
        An emergency national law issued last week banned civil and religious ceremonies, including funerals, to prevent the spread of the virus. Officials have allowed priests to say a prayer at burials attended by just a few of the bereaved. In his brief prayers to family members, who often wore masks, Bergamelli said that he tried to give consolation and hope and urged people to be close, if permitted, to those who were alone. “This tragedy reminds us to love life,” he said.        意大利在上周颁布了一项全国性的紧急法令,禁止举办包括葬礼在内的民事和宗教仪式,以防止病毒的传播。官方允许牧师在葬礼上祈祷,只有少数死者家属可以参加。贝尔加梅利经常会戴着口罩,在向死者家人所做的简短祈祷词中,努力给予安慰与希望,并敦促人们,若是可以的话,还是要多接触那些孤独的人。“这场悲剧提醒我们要热爱生活,”他说。
        Testa’s death notice appeared Friday in a local paper, L’Eco di Bergamo. The paper usually has a single page of death notices. On Friday there were 10 pages, and the rest was dedicated to the virus devastating Bergamo.        泰斯塔的讣告于周五刊登在当地报纸《贝加莫报》(L’Eco di Bergamo)上。该报讣告栏通常只有一版,周五有了10版,其他版面都是关于这场令贝加莫陷入深深悲痛的病毒。
        “For us, it’s a trauma, an emotional trauma,” said Alberto Ceresoli, who edits the paper. “These are people who die alone and who are buried alone. They didn’t have someone hold their hand, and the funerals have to be tiny, with a quick prayer from the priest. Many of the close relatives are in quarantine.”        “对我们来说,这是一种创伤,一种情感上的创伤,”该报编辑阿尔贝托·切里索利(Alberto Ceresoli)说。“这些人孤独地死去,孤独地被埋葬。没有人牵着他们的手,葬礼必须很小,牧师匆匆地祈祷。许多近亲都在隔离中。”
        Giorgio Valoti, mayor of nearby Cene, died last Friday. He was 70. His son, Alessandro, said that 90 people died the same day in Bergamo’s main hospital. The virus “is massacring this valley; every family is losing someone dear to them,” he said. “In Bergamo, so many bodies are piling up they don’t know what to do with them.”        附近的切内市市长乔治·瓦洛蒂(Giorgio Valoti)于周五去世,享年70岁。他的儿子亚历山德罗(Alessandro)说,同一天有90人在贝加莫的主要医院内去世。病毒“正在屠杀这个山谷;每个家庭都在失去亲人,”他说。“在贝加莫,太多的尸体堆积起来,他们不知该怎么办。”
        In Fiobbio, a small village outside Bergamo, an ambulance came to collect Luca Carrara’s father, 86, on Saturday. On Sunday, another one came for his mother, 82. Carrara, 52, couldn’t visit them in hospital and stayed home in quarantine, where he has begun showing symptoms of the virus. On Tuesday, his parents died. Their bodies are held in the hospital morgue awaiting cremation.        周六,在贝加莫郊外的小村庄菲奥比奥,一辆救护车来接卢卡·卡拉拉(Luca Carrara)86岁的父亲。周日,另一辆救护车来接他82岁的母亲。现年52岁的卡拉拉无法到医院探望他们,已经开始出现新冠病毒症状的他只能在家里接受隔离。周二,他的父母去世了。他们的遗体被存放在医院的太平间里等待火化。
        “I am sorry that they are still there,” he said. “Still alone.”        “我很难过,他们还是孤孤单单地留在那里,”他说。
        Luca di Palma, 49, said his father, Vittorio, 79, died Wednesday night and that the funeral home he called told him that it had no space for the body. Instead, workers delivered to his house a coffin, some candles, a cross and a mortuary refrigerator so that he could lay his father out in the living room. He said nobody came to pay respects, out of fear of contagion, though his father had died before he could be confirmed as a coronavirus case, and doctors had refused to perform a post-mortem swab test.        49岁的卢卡·迪帕尔马(Luca di Palma)说,他79岁的父亲维托里奥(Vittorio)于周三晚上去世,他打电话给殡仪馆,那里已经没有存放尸体的地方。工人们给他送来了一口棺材、一些蜡烛、一个十字架和一个停尸冷柜,让他把父亲放在客厅里。他说,尽管父亲在被确诊为冠状病毒病例之前就去世了,由于害怕被传染,没有人前来凭吊,医生也拒绝进对逝者进行拭子检验。
        On Saturday, di Palma followed a hearse carrying his father’s body to a cemetery in Bergamo, where a caretaker let them in and locked the gates behind. A priest arrived to offer a brief prayer over the hearse, its trunk lifted. Di Palma said his father wanted to be cremated, but the wait was long. “Painful,” he said.        星期六,迪帕尔马跟随一辆灵车,把父亲的遗体送到贝加莫的一个墓地,那里的一个管理员放他们进去后锁上了大门。一位牧师来到灵车前做了简短的祈祷,之后棺材被卸下来。迪帕尔马说父亲希望火化,但等待的时间很长。“很痛苦,”他说。
        In a country where many learn in school about the dreaded Monatti who, preceded by the ringing of a little bell, retrieved corpses on carts during the 17th-century Milan plague, the amassing of dead bodies seems out of another time.        在这个国家里,许多人在学校里读到过可怕的扛尸员的故事,在17世纪米兰瘟疫期间,他们摇着小铃铛为自己开道,用手推车运送尸体,堆积如山的死尸似乎是另一个时代的事。
        Alessandro Bosi, secretary of the National Federation of Funeral Homes, said that the virus had also caught the mortuary industry by surprise, with those who handle the dead not having sufficient masks or gloves. While health authorities say they do not believe that the virus can be transmitted posthumously, Bosi said that a corpse’s lungs often released air when being moved.        全国殡仪馆联合会(National Federation of Funeral Homes)秘书长亚历山德罗·博西(Alessandro Bosi)表示,这种病毒也让殡仪行业措手不及,处理死者的人没有足够的口罩或手套。虽然卫生部门表示,他们不认为这种病毒会在死后传播,但博西说,尸体的肺部在移动时通常会释放气体。
        “We have to consider them in the way we would treat infectious individuals, and take the same care,” he said.        “我们必须把遗体当做是有传染性的,并采取相应的措施,”他说。
        “If we’re not the ones taking away the dead,” he added, “then they’d have to call in the army.”        “如果没有我们负责处理尸体,”他还说,“他们就得叫军队来了。”

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