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The World Needs Masks. China Makes Them — But Has Been Hoarding Them.

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-16 04:59

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        SHANGHAI — As hospitals and governments hunt desperately for respirators and surgical masks to protect doctors and nurses from the coronavirus pandemic, they face a difficult reality: The world depends on China to make them, and the country is only beginning to share.        上海——当各国医院和政府拼命寻找呼吸器和外科口罩来保护医生和护士免受冠状病毒的感染时,他们面临一个艰难的现实:世界依赖中国制造它们,而这个国家最近才开始分享它们。
        China made half the world’s masks before the coronavirus emerged there, and it has expanded production nearly 12-fold since then. But it has claimed mask factory output for itself. Purchases and donations also brought China a big chunk of the world’s supply from elsewhere.        在冠状病毒出现之前,中国生产全世界一半的口罩,自那以后,中国的口罩产量增加了近12倍。但它已将口罩工厂的产出全部据为己有。采购和捐赠也将世界其他地方的一大部分供应带到中国。
        Now, worries about mask supplies are rising. As the virus’s global spread escalates, governments around the world are restricting exports of protective gear, which experts say could worsen the pandemic.        现在,对口罩供应的担忧正在加剧。随着该病毒在全球进一步蔓延,世界各国政府都在限制防护装备的出口,专家称这可能会使疫情进一步恶化。
        That has put growing pressure on China to meet the world’s needs, even as it continues to grapple with the coronavirus itself. Although government data suggests China has brought infection rates under control, epidemiologists warn that its outbreak could flare again as officials loosen travel limits and more people return to work.        这给中国带来了越来越大的压力,要求它满足世界的需求,虽然它目前仍在继续与冠状病毒作斗争。尽管政府数据显示中国已将感染率控制住,但流行病学家警告称,随着官员放松旅行限制,更多人重返工作岗位,疫情可能再度暴发。
        Peter Navarro, an adviser to President Trump on manufacturing and trade, contended on Fox Business last month that China had essentially taken over factories that make masks on behalf of American companies. Beijing, he said, had opted to “nationalize effectively 3M, our company.”        特朗普总统的制造业和贸易顾问彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)上月在福克斯商业台(Fox Business)称,中国实际上已经接管了为美国公司生产口罩的工厂。他说,北京选择“将3M,一家我们的公司,实质上国有化了”。
        In a statement, Minnesota-based 3M said most of the masks it made at its factory in Shanghai had been sold within China even before the outbreak. It declined to comment on when exports from China might resume.        总部在明尼苏达州的3M公司在一份声明中说,该公司上海工厂生产的大多数口罩在疫情暴发前就已在中国销售。该公司拒绝就中国何时可能恢复出口置评。
        China may be easing its grip as the world’s needs grow. Tan Qunhong, the general manager of a small manufacturer of disposable masks in central China, said that she had filled the government’s purchase orders and was starting to resume exports. The Chinese government is also shipping masks abroad as part of goodwill packages.        随着世界需求的增长,中国可能会放松控制。华中地区一家小型一次性口罩制造商的总经理谭群红(音)表示,她已完成了政府的采购订单,并开始恢复出口。中国政府还将口罩作为其善意计划的一部分运往海外。
        Other manufacturers say the Chinese government is still claiming all the masks that their factories in the country make. “Mask exports are still not authorized, but we are following the situation every day,” said Guillaume Laverdure, chief operating officer of Medicom, a Canadian manufacturer that makes three million masks a day at its Shanghai factory.        其他制造商表示,中国政府仍在要求获得他们在华工厂生产的所有口罩。“口罩出口仍未获得批准,但我们每天都在关注情况,”加拿大制造商麦迪康(Medicom)的首席运营官纪尧姆·拉弗杜尔(Guillaume Laverdure)说,该公司在上海的工厂每天生产300万个口罩。
        Much as it dominates manufacturing of cars, steel, electronics and other necessities, China is essential to the world’s supply of protective medical gear. Most of what it makes are the disposable surgical masks worn by health professionals. It makes a smaller number of N95 respirator masks, which provide more filtration for doctors and nurses.        正如中国主导着汽车、钢铁、电子产品和其他必需品的生产,它对全球医疗防护装备的供应也至关重要。它生产的大部分产品是卫生专业人员戴的一次性外科口罩,为医护人员提供更多过滤能力的N95呼吸器口罩产量较小。
        The general public does not need to wear masks, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But demand for surgical masks has skyrocketed in China, where the police require anyone who goes out in public to wear a mask.        根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的说法,一般公众不需要戴口罩。但在中国,对医用口罩的需求激增,因为警方要求所有出门的人都要戴口罩。
        Though companies say China is claiming virtually all mask output, the Chinese government said it had never issued a regulation prohibiting mask exports and was willing to work with other countries to share.        尽管企业表示,中国要求获得几乎全部口罩产量,但中国政府表示,从未发布过禁止口罩出口的规定,并愿意与其他国家分享。
        “We fully understand the stress and problems that relevant countries are facing at this moment regarding the epidemic, and we are willing to strengthen international cooperation,” said Li Xingqian, the vice director of international trade at China’s Commerce Ministry, in a written reply to questions.        “我们对各国人民在疫情面前遭遇的困难和压力感同身受,我们一直在进一步扩大国际和地区合作,”中国商务部外贸司副司长李兴乾以书面形式回答记者提问时表示。
        China did not just stop selling masks — it also bought up much of the rest of the world’s supply. According to official data, China imported 56 million respirators and masks in the first week after the January lockdown of the city of Wuhan, where the coronavirus emerged.        中国不仅停止了口罩的销售,还购买了世界其他地区的大部分口罩供应。官方数据显示,在1月份出现冠状病毒的武汉市被封锁后的第一周,中国进口了5600万个呼吸器口罩和外科口罩。
        On Jan. 30, the last day for which data is available, China managed to import 20 million respirators and surgical masks in just 24 hours. Through February, civic-minded entrepreneurs and aid groups visited pharmacies in affluent countries and emerging markets alike, buying masks in bulk to send to China.        在现有数据的最后一天1月30日,中国在24小时内进口了2000万个呼吸器口罩和外科口罩。整个2月,热心公益的企业家和援助组织走遍富裕国家和新兴市场的药房,购买大批口罩运往中国。
        Global companies and charities donated, too. Honeywell provided 500,000 N95 respirator masks, and 3M donated a million of them. Honeywell said its contribution came from stockpiles in China, while 3M declined to identify the source of its donations.        跨国公司和慈善机构也纷纷捐助。霍尼韦尔(Honeywell)提供了50万个N95口罩,3M捐赠了100万个。霍尼韦尔表示,其捐赠来自中国库存,3M拒绝透露捐赠来源。
        3M also donated a second shipment of respirators, but declined to say how many that included. The charitable foundation of Bristol Myers Squibb funded an additional 220,000 N95 respirators for doctors and nurses at the center of the outbreak.        3M还捐赠了第二批口罩,但拒绝透露数量。百时美施贵宝(Bristol Myers Squibb)的慈善基金会为处于疫情中心的医生和护士额外提供了22万个N95口罩。
        Since then, China has undertaken a mobilization of wartime proportions to expand its output of disposable surgical masks. Daily production soared from about 10 million at the start of February to 115 million at the end of the month, according to the Chinese government.        从那时起,中国开始动员战时力量,扩大一次性医用口罩的产量。根据中国政府的数据,其日产量从2月初的约1000万个飙升至月底的1.15亿个。
        Yuan Fajun, the secretary general of the medical materials committee at the China Medical Pharmaceutical Material Association, said manufacturers still needed to produce another 230 million surgical masks for the domestic market. But the recent surge in production means that those orders can be met and exports should be possible, he said.        中国医药物资协会非药委员会秘书长袁发俊表示,制造商还需要为国内市场生产2.3亿个医用口罩。但他表示,最近产量的激增意味着这些订单可以被满足,出口应该是可能的。
        Hundreds of small companies have started making masks. A General Motors joint venture in southwestern China built 20 of its own mask-making machines and began bulk production.        数百家小公司已经开始生产口罩。通用汽车(General Motors)在中国西南地区的一家合资企业自己制造了20台口罩机,开始批量生产。
        Yet production of N95 respirator masks has barely increased, to 1.66 million per day. They require a special fabric that is in short supply.        然而,N95口罩的产量几乎没有增加,每天仅166万个。它们需要一种短缺的特殊织物。
        China’s immediate needs may be easing. As new cases soar from Milan to Seattle, Wuhan is reporting fewer than a dozen new infections a day.        中国目前的需求可能正在缓解。从米兰到西雅图,新病例不断激增,然而武汉每天报告的新感染病例不到12例。
        The Chinese government has begun some shipments to other countries as part of aid packages. It donated 250,000 masks last month to Iran, one of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic, and 200,000 to the Philippines. This week it said it would send five million masks to South Korea and export 100,000 respirators and two million surgical masks to Italy.        作为援助计划的一部分,中国政府已经开始向其他国家发货。上个月,中国向疫情最严重的国家之一伊朗捐赠了25万个口罩,另向菲律宾捐赠了20万个。本周,中国表示将向韩国送去500万个口罩,向意大利出口10万个呼吸器口罩和200万个外科口罩。
        “In the previous stage of prevention and control, many countries have offered to help us, and we are willing to offer affected countries our share of help while we can,” said Mr. Li at the Ministry of Commerce in Beijing.        “我们也始终铭记,在最困难的时候,一些国家和国际组织给予的真诚帮助,我们愿意在克服自身困难同时,对有关国家,特别是疫情较重国家和地区,给予力所能及的帮助,”中国商务部的李兴乾说。
        Analysts in the West say China is also looking for political influence by having top diplomats announce the donations. “It is certainly making it a tool of foreign policy,” said Jacques deLisle, the director of the Center for the Study of Contemporary China at the University of Pennsylvania.        西方分析人士说,中国还希望通过让高级外交官宣布捐赠来寻求政治影响力。“这肯定会让它成为外交政策的工具,”宾夕法尼亚大学当代中国研究中心(Center for the Study of Contemporary China at the University of Pennsylvania)主任戴立安(Jacques deLisle)说,
        China’s government is not the only one that has played a big role in mask allocation. Taiwan, South Korea and India have all taken steps to stop mask exports.        中国政府并不是唯一一个在口罩分配中扮演重要角色的政府。台湾、韩国和印度都已采取措施阻止口罩出口。
        Citing shortages that endanger doctors and nurses, the French government last week requisitioned all mask production through the end of May. It is also pressing French medical supply factories to produce N95 masks and surgical masks around the clock for domestic use only.        上周,法国政府以药品短缺危及医护人员生命为由,征用了5月底之前的全部口罩产出。它还敦促法国医疗供应厂家全天24小时生产N95口罩和外科口罩,只供国内使用。
        Valmy SAS, a midsize medical supplies maker near Lyon, France, was unable to fulfill an order for a million masks by the British National Health Service because the French government requisitioned supplies. “They tell me what to make and I make it,” said Nicolas Brillat, the company’s director.        法国里昂附近的中型医疗用品制造商Valmy SAS无法完成英国国民健康服务(British National Health Service)100万个口罩的订单,因为法国政府需要这些口罩。“他们让我做什么我就做什么,”该公司董事尼古拉·布里拉(Nicolas Brillat)说。
        Germany and the Czech Republic last week banned the export of face masks and other protective equipment. In Italy, where the government has placed nearly all of the population on lockdown since Monday, masks and other protective medical supplies may not leave the country without authorization.        德国和捷克共和国上周禁止了口罩和其他防护设备的出口。自周一以来,意大利政府几乎已令全国人口进入封锁状态,口罩和其他保护性医疗用品未经批准不得离开该国。
        The governments did not give production numbers or say how many masks they needed to cover at-risk populations. But officials in Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria and other European Union countries warned that the curbs were preventing suppliers from delivering to neighboring countries.        各国政府没有给出生产数据,也没有说需要多少口罩才能覆盖所有高危人群。但比利时、荷兰、奥地利和其他欧盟国家的官员警告说,这些限制措施阻碍了供应商向邻国供货。
        The bans “risk undermining our collective approach to handle this crisis,” Janez Lenarcic, the E.U.’s crisis management commissioner, said on Friday at an emergency meeting of European health ministers in Brussels.        这些禁令“有可能破坏我们在这场危机中的共同应对”,欧盟危机管理专员亚内兹·莱纳尔契奇(Janez Lenarcic)周五在布鲁塞尔的欧洲卫生部长紧急会议上说。
        Supplies from a five-story building in southwestern Shanghai could help alleviate the shortage. The huge factory is one of the most important sites manufacturing N95 respirators for 3M.        来自上海西南一座五层大楼的供应,可能有助于缓解短缺。这个巨大的工厂是为3M生产N95口罩的最重要工厂之一。
        Standing at the factory fence, which was topped with six strands of electrified wire, a worker who gave only his family name, Zhou, said the masks had been helping China fight the virus.        一位只愿透露自己姓周的工人站在工厂外的电网栅栏前说,口罩一直在帮助中国抗击病毒。
        “They’re being sent,” he said with pride, “to hospitals in Wuhan.”        “它们正在被送往武汉的医院,”他自豪地说。

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