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随着肺炎疫情传播,反华情绪也在蔓延
As Coronavirus Spreads, So Does Anti-Chinese Sentiment

来源:纽约时报    2020-02-01 09:42



        In Japan, the hashtag #ChineseDon’tComeToJapan has been trending on Twitter. In Singapore, tens of thousands of residents have signed a petition calling for the government to ban Chinese nationals from entering the country.        在日本,“#中国人入国禁止”一直是Twitter热门标签。在新加坡,成千上万的居民签署了一份请愿书,呼吁政府禁止中国公民进入新加坡。
        In Hong Kong, South Korea and Vietnam, businesses have posted signs saying that mainland Chinese customers are not welcome. In France, a front-page headline in a regional newspaper warned of a “Yellow Alert.” And in a suburb of Toronto, parents demanded that a school district keep children of a family that had recently returned from China out of classes for 17 days.        在香港、韩国和越南,商店已张贴告示说不欢迎中国大陆的客人。在法国,地区报纸的头版头条发出“黄色警报”。在多伦多一个郊区,家长要求学区将一个近期从中国回来的家庭的孩子停课17天。
        The rapid spread of the mysterious coronavirus that has sickened more than 7,700 people — the overwhelming majority in China, with all of the 170 deaths there — has unleashed a wave of panic and, in some cases, outright anti-Chinese sentiment across the globe.        神秘的冠状病毒蔓延迅速,已经使7700多人患病——绝大多数在中国,所有170个死亡病例均在中国——这在全球范围内引发了恐慌浪潮,在某些情况下甚至引起反华情绪(截至1月30日24时,确诊人数已上升至9692人,死亡人数升至213人——编注)。
        While public health officials scramble to contain the crisis — the World Health Organization declared a global health emergency on Thursday — fears over the dangerous outbreak have fueled xenophobia. And the wave of spreading panic has, at times, far outstripped practical concerns.        在公共卫生官员奋争遏制危机的同时——世界卫生组织周四宣布疫情构成国际卫生突发事件——人们对危险爆发的担忧加剧了仇外心理。恐慌扩散的浪潮有时远远超出了实际问题。
        At a time when China’s rise as a global economic and military power has unsettled its neighbors in Asia as well as its rivals in the West, the coronavirus is feeding into latent bigotry against the people of mainland China.        中国崛起为全球经济和军事强国之际,其亚洲邻国以及西方的竞争对手已经感到不安,而冠状病毒正在放大人们对中国大陆人的潜在歧视。
        “Some of the xenophobia is likely undergirded by broader political and economic tensions and anxieties related to China, which are interacting with more recent fears of contagion,” said Kristi Govella, an assistant professor of Asian studies at the University of Hawaii, Manoa.        “与中国有关的广泛政治、经济对峙和忧虑加剧了某些仇外心理,这些情绪与最近对传染病的担忧交互在一起,”夏威夷大学马诺阿主校(University of Hawaii, Manoa)亚洲研究助理教授克里斯蒂·戈维拉(Kristi Govella)说。
        Some of the response to the outbreak can be seen as a rational calculation based on the risk of infection: Airlines are canceling flights to Wuhan, the center of the epidemic, and other Chinese cities, and conference organizers are asking Chinese delegations not to attend.        面对疫情,某些反应可以看作是基于感染风险的合理计算:航空公司正在取消飞往疫情中心武汉及其他中国城市的航班,会议组织者要求中国代表团不要参加。
        Late Thursday, Italy’s prime minister said that his country had blocked all flights to and from China. And countries like Malaysia, the Philippines, Russia and Vietnam have temporarily stopped issuing certain classes of visas to travelers from Hubei Province, where Wuhan is situated, or China altogether.        意大利总理周四晚间表示,该国已经禁止往返中国的所有航班。同时,马来西亚、菲律宾、俄罗斯和越南等国家已暂停向来自武汉所在的湖北省甚至中国全境的旅行者签发某些类别的签证。
        “I think it is time to put a temporary ‘do not enter’ sign on our doorstep for visitors from China,” said Ralph Recto, a lawmaker in the Philippines.        菲律宾立法者拉尔夫·雷克托(Ralph Recto)表示:“我认为现在是时候针对中国来访者在我们的国门前放出一个暂时的‘请勿进入’标志了。”
        Bangkok residents are avoiding malls that are particularly popular with Chinese tourists. A plastic surgery office in the wealthy Gangnam neighborhood of Seoul has instructed employees that they can see Chinese customers only if they can prove that they have been in South Korea for 14 days or more, the potential period that the virus can lie dormant.        曼谷居民正在避开特别受中国游客欢迎的购物中心。位于首尔江南富人区的一家整形外科办公室已指示员工,只能接待能够证明自己在韩国停留了14天或更长时间的中国客人,14天是这种病毒的潜伏期。
        At a sushi restaurant in the neighborhood that once housed the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo, where about 90 percent of the customers are Chinese, Yaeko Suenaga, 70, a server, said she understood why some stores might want to reject visitors from China.        在东京,前筑地鱼市所在社区的一家寿司店里,约90%的顾客是中国人,现年70岁的服务员末永八重子(Yaeko Suenaga,音)说,她理解为什么有些店可能想拒绝来自中国的游客。
        “I don’t think this fear comes from discrimination,” Ms. Suenaga said, “but from the true fear that humans have of getting infected with a virus that may lead to death.” Ms. Suenaga said that her restaurant would continue to welcome all customers, but that workers would wear masks.        “我不认为这种恐惧来自歧视,”她说,“担心染上一种可能导致死亡的病毒,这是人类实实在在会有的恐惧。”末永说,她的餐厅将继续欢迎所有顾客,但是工作人员会戴上口罩。
        It is not always easy to discern the boundary between understandable fear and unmistakable discrimination. But some protective measures have effectively amounted to racial or ethnic profiling.        可理解的恐惧与明确的歧视之间的界限不易分辨。但是某些保护措施实际上等同于种族或民族脸谱化。
        At Bread Box, a banh mi restaurant in central Hoi An, a popular tourist outpost in Vietnam, the owners posted a makeshift sign outside their storefront this month reading, “We can’t service for Chinese, SORRY!” Up the coast, the Danang Riverside Hotel announced on Saturday that it would not accept any Chinese guests because of the virus.        在越南热门旅游地区会安中部,越式法包餐厅Bread Box的老板本月在店外张贴了一个临时标牌,上面写着:“抱歉,我们不能款待中国人!”岘港河畔酒店周六宣布,出于病毒的原因,他们将不接待任何中国客人。
        Kwong Wing Catering, a small restaurant chain in Hong Kong, announced in a Facebook post on Wednesday that it would serve only patrons speaking English or Cantonese, the city’s native language — a tongue distinct from the Mandarin spoken on the mainland. The business has been a vocal supporter of the Hong Kong democracy movement that has risen up in defiance of Beijing.        香港一家小型餐饮连锁光荣饮食(Kwong Wing Catering)周三在Facebook帖子中宣布,该餐厅仅接待讲英语或广东话的顾客,广东话是香港本地语言——不同于中国大陆的普通话。该餐厅一直是对抗北京的香港民主运动的坚定支持者。
        Public health experts said they understood some of the impulses. “In a sense, it’s a natural reaction to try to distance yourself from a potential cause of illness, particularly when there’s no known cure,” said Karen Eggleston, director of the Asia health policy program at the Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at Stanford University.        公共卫生专家表示,他们理解其中的一些冲动。“从某种意义上说,试图与潜在的致病原因保持距离是一种自然的反应,尤其是在没有已知治愈方法的情况下,”斯坦福大学舒思深亚太研究中心(Stanford University Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center)亚洲卫生政策项目主任凯伦·埃格斯顿(Karen Eggleston)说。
        But examples in both mass and social media have clearly crossed a line. In Australia, The Herald Sun, a Murdoch-owned newspaper, published the words “China Virus Panda-monium” over an image of a red mask. More than 46,000 people from the resident Chinese community in Australia signed a petition that called the headline “unacceptable race discrimination.”        但大众媒体和社交媒体上都有明显越界的例子。在澳大利亚,默多克所有的《先驱太阳报》(Herald Sun)刊登了一张带有一个红色口罩的图片,下面写着“中国病毒熊猫地狱”。澳大利亚华人社区的4.6万多人签署了一份请愿书,称这个标题是“不可接受的种族歧视”。
        Le Courrier Picard, a regional newspaper in northern France, caused outrage with its “Yellow Alert” headline this month. The newspaper later apologized.        法国北部地区报纸《皮卡尔信使报》(Le Courrier Picard)本月的文章标题《黄色警报》引起了公愤。该报随后道歉。
        On Twitter in Japan, where there has long been unease about the conduct of Chinese tourists, commenters have labeled them “dirty” and “insensitive” and have called them “bioterrorists.”        在日本,人们对中国游客的行为早有忧虑,如今,Twitter上的评论者称中国人“肮脏”、“麻木”,称他们是“生物恐怖分子”。
        Disinformation is also running high. A much-viewed YouTube video in South Korea claims that a biochemical weapons facility in China leaked the coronavirus, a theory that has gained currency in other corners of the globe. In Australia, a fake post circulating on Instagram warned that shops in Sydney containing items like fortune cookies, rice and “Chinese Red Bull” were contaminated.        假消息也越来越多。一段在韩国广为流传的YouTube视频称,这种冠状病毒是中国的一个生化武器设施泄露的,这个说法也在世界其他地方传播。在澳大利亚,一条在Instagram上流传的假消息警告称,悉尼的商店里出售的幸运饼干、大米和“中国红牛”等物品受到了污染。
        The episodes of racism have swept up other people of Asian descent. In France, one Vietnamese woman told the newspaper Le Monde that she had been insulted by a car driver who shouted “Keep your virus, dirty Chinese!” and “You are not welcome in France” as he sped away through a puddle, splashing her.        种族主义事件也波及其他亚裔人群。在法国,一名越南女子告诉《世界报》(Le Monde),一名汽车司机侮辱她,向她大喊“留着你的病毒吧,肮脏的中国人!”和“法国不欢迎你”,同时飞快地开过一个水坑,溅了她一身水。
        In Australia, Andy Miao, 24, an ethnic Chinese Australian who returned this month from a trip to China, said that passengers on public transport gave him odd looks if he was not wearing a face mask.        在澳大利亚,本月刚从中国回来的24岁华裔澳大利亚人安迪·苗(Andy Miao,音)说,如果他不戴口罩,公共交通工具上的乘客会用奇怪的眼神看他。
        “It makes people like me who are very, very Australian feel like outsiders,” Mr. Miao said. “It’s definitely invoking a lot of past racial stereotypes.”        “这让像我这样非常、非常澳大利亚的人觉得自己是局外人,”安迪·苗说。“这肯定会唤起很多过去的种族刻板印象。”
        The Chinese — and Asians in general — were subjected to similar xenophobic reactions during the SARS epidemic of 2003. But now far more Chinese are traveling abroad: According to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Chinese travelers made about 150 million overseas trips in 2018, up more than 14 percent from the previous year.        2003年SARS期间,中国人乃至亚洲人也经历了类似的排外反应。但如今出国旅游的中国人要多得多:据中国文化和旅游部的数据,2018年中国出境游客约1.5亿人次,同比增长逾14%。
        China’s lockdown of tens of millions of people, intended to curb the spread of the virus, may be spurring other governments to overreact, said Koichi Nakano, a political scientist at Sophia University in Tokyo.        东京上智大学(Sophia University)的政治学家中野晃一(Koichi Nakano)说,中国为了遏制病毒传播对数千万人实施封锁,这可能会促使其他国家的政府做出过度反应。
        “The fact that the Chinese government itself is treating people like that would in some ways enable or encourage some of the other people or governments to take equally draconian measures,” Mr. Nakano said.        “中国政府自己就是这样对待人民的,这在某种程度上会促使或鼓励其他一些人或政府采取同样严厉的措施,”中野说。
        Some governments are trying to ease the panic. In Toronto, politicians, a school board and some community groups have issued public appeals to avoid a repetition of the racism that swept the city in 2003, when SARS killed 44 people there.        一些政府正试图缓解恐慌。在多伦多,政界人士、一个学校董事会和一些社区团体发出了公开呼吁,要求避免2003年SARS时期席卷全城的种族主义重演,当年的疫情导致该市44人死亡。
        “While the virus can be traced to a province in China, we have to be cautious that this not be seen as a Chinese virus,” the school board in the York Region, a suburb with many Asian residents, said in a statement issued on Monday. “At times such as this, we must come together as Canadians and avoid any hint of xenophobia, which in this case can victimize our East Asian Chinese community.”        “虽然这种病毒可以追溯到中国的一个省份,但我们必须当心,不要把它视为一种中国病毒,”位于有很多亚裔居民的约克区的一所学校的董事会在周一发布的声明中说。“在这样的时刻,作为加拿大人,我们必须团结起来,避免任何仇外情绪,因为在这种情况下,仇外情绪会伤害我们的东亚华人社区。”
        Although Indonesia has suspended flights from Wuhan, the governor of West Sumatra, Irwan Prayitno, ignored a plea from a citizens group to reject all Chinese tourists. On Sunday, he went to the airport to welcome 174 Chinese visitors from the southwestern city of Kunming.        虽然印尼已经暂停了来自武汉的航班,但西苏门答腊省省长伊尔万·帕拉维诺(Irwan Prayitno)不理会一个公民组织拒绝所有中国游客的请求。周日,他前往机场迎接来自中国西南城市昆明的174名中国游客。
        In the Ginza shopping district of Tokyo, which is often thronged with Chinese tourists, Michiko Kubota, who runs a clothing boutique, said she hoped the Japanese government might do more to help China, such as by sending masks or other medical supplies.        在经常挤满中国游客的东京银座购物区,经营一家服装精品店的久保田美智子(Michiko Kubota,音)说,她希望日本政府能做更多帮助中国的事情,比如送去口罩或其他医疗用品。
        “Japan and China may be critical of each other sometimes, but the kindness is mutual,” Ms. Kubota said. “I hope we could do more to help eradicate fear in China as well.”        “日本和中国有时可能会相互指责,但双方之间也有善意,”久保田说。“我希望我们也能做更多事情来消除中国的恐惧。”
                
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