Bilingual News

首页 |  双语新闻 |  双语读物 |  双语名著 | 
[英文] [中文] [双语对照] [双语交替]    []        

Peter Navarro, Trump’s Trade Warrior, Has Not Made His Peace With China

来源:纽约时报    2019-12-27 01:58

        Sign up for NYT Chinese-language Morning Briefing.        [欢迎点击此处、或发送邮件至cn.letters@nytimes.com订阅《纽约时报》中文简报。]
        WASHINGTON — When President Trump gathered his top economic advisers at the White House to decide whether to make a deal with China, Peter Navarro, his hawkish trade adviser, was ready with a flurry of arguments against the move.        华盛顿——当特朗普总统在白宫召集他的高级贸易顾问来决定是否与中国达成协议时,鹰派贸易顾问彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)已准备好用一系列的论点反对此举。
        A deal that removed any of Mr. Trump’s tariffs would make America look weak, Mr. Navarro argued at the meeting two weeks ago, and he assailed those who endorsed the idea as “globalists,” according to an administration official in the room.        在两周前的会议上,纳瓦罗提出,如果达成协议,取消特朗普的任何关税,会让美国显得软弱。据当时在场的一名政府官员称,纳瓦罗抨击那些支持取消关税的人是“全球主义者”。
        It was a familiar argument for Mr. Trump’s top trade adviser, who has spent the past three years fanning the president’s protectionist instincts and encouraging him to embark on a punishing trade war with China. Mr. Navarro’s dark warnings about China’s ambitions and its threat to America have fueled Mr. Trump’s embrace of tariffs, overcoming the objections of other senior advisers.        特朗普首席贸易顾问的论点并不令人陌生,过去三年,他一直煽动总统的保护主义本能,鼓励总统与中国开展惩罚性的贸易战。纳瓦罗对中国的野心及其对美国威胁的阴郁警告,促使特朗普不顾其他高级顾问的反对,接受了关税。
        This time, however, Mr. Trump was not persuaded. With the 2020 election approaching, Mr. Trump dismissed Mr. Navarro’s concerns, opting for an initial deal with China that would reduce some tariffs on Chinese goods in exchange for a commitment from Beijing to buy more American products and a series of promises to resolve other concerns.        然而,这次特朗普未被说服。随着2020年大选的临近,特朗普不理会纳瓦罗的担忧,选择与中国达成初步协议,降低对中国产品的关税,换取北京购买更多美国产品并作出一系列承诺以解决美国的其他顾虑。
        “The deal with China is a massive deal,” Mr. Trump said at an event about deregulation at the White House last week, adding: “No, I’m not a globalist.”        特朗普上周在白宫举行的有关放松管制的活动中说:“和中国的协议是一个庞大的协议,”他补充说:“不,我不是全球主义者。”
        Mr. Navarro declined to comment on the events of the meeting.        纳瓦罗拒绝对会议事件置评。
        “What happens in the Oval should stay in the Oval, both for the sanctity and security of the internal discussions and for the good of the country,” Mr. Navarro said.        “为了内部讨论的神圣性和安全性,也为了国家的利益,椭圆形办公室发生的事情不应外传,”纳瓦罗说。
        For three years, Mr. Navarro, 70, has been Mr. Trump’s trade warrior, pushing the president to rip up trade deals and rewrite them so they are more favorable to American workers. An academic with little previous government or business experience, Mr. Navarro has managed to exert enormous influence over United States trade policy by tapping into the president’s disdain for globalization and encouraging his view that China has been “robbing us blind.”        三年来,现年70岁的纳瓦罗一直是特朗普的贸易斗士,他敦促总统将贸易协议推翻重写,令它们对美国工人更有利。纳瓦罗是一位几乎没有政府和商业经验的学者,他利用总统对全球化的蔑视,助长总统那种“中国从我们眼皮底下明目张胆偷东西”的观点,成功对美国贸易政策施加了巨大影响。
        China specialists tend to view Mr. Navarro warily. He does not speak Mandarin and had visited the country only once before traveling there in 2018 as part of a White House delegation. Some scholars sneered in October when it emerged that Mr. Navarro had taken creative license to quote a fictitious source — Ron Vara — in several of his nonacademic books. Even his own colleagues have chafed at his aggressive approach to China and have at times tried to block Mr. Navarro’s access to the president.        中国专家倾向于对纳瓦罗持谨慎态度。他不会说中文,在2018年以白宫代表团成员身份访问中国之前,仅来过中国一次。今年10月,有消息称纳瓦罗在他的几本非学术著作中进行创作加工,引用了一个虚构的信源——罗恩·瓦拉(Ron Vara),一些学者对此嗤之以鼻。甚至连他自己的同事也为他对中国的强硬态度感到恼火,有时会试图阻止纳瓦罗与总统接触。
        Still, Mr. Navarro’s thinking has become deeply influential. Even those who disagree with him on economic policy and China increasingly tend to credit him for having guided the political debate.        不过,纳瓦罗的思想已经产生了深远的影响。即使是那些在经济政策和中国问题上与他相左的人,也越来越认同是他引导了政治辩论。
        “For all the criticism he gets from the free trade wing of the Republican Party, he was one of the first people to ring the alarm on China years ago,” said Stephen Moore, a Heritage Foundation economist who also advised Mr. Trump’s 2016 campaign. “Now I think more people, including myself, look at China’s trade policies as really predatory and economically harmful.”        “尽管共和党自由贸易派对他做出了各种批评,但他仍是多年前首先敲响中国警钟的人之一,”美国传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)经济学家斯蒂芬·摩尔(Stephen Moore)说,他也是特朗普2016年大选的顾问。“现在我认为,包括我自己在内,更多人认为中国的贸易政策确实是掠夺性的,并且对经济有害。”
        With Mr. Trump moving to ease tensions with his favorite geopolitical foil and with trade deals with Canada, Mexico, Japan and South Korea now complete, Mr. Navarro is at a something of a crossroads — a trade warrior looking for a new fight.        如今,特朗普采取行动,缓解和他最青睐的地缘政治对手之间的紧张局势,与加拿大、墨西哥、日本和韩国的贸易协议也已经完成,纳瓦罗犹如置身十字路口——这位贸易的斗士正在寻找新的斗争。
        Mr. Navarro has embraced under-the-radar projects aimed at curbing China’s economic power, including efforts to increase inspections of Chinese packages at the ports and renegotiating Chinese postal fees. And many China hawks believe that the government’s long history of shirking economic pledges will ultimately vindicate his distrust of an agreement that does little to alter China’s behavior at home.        纳瓦罗一直支持旨在暗中遏制中国经济实力的项目,包括在港口加大对中国包裹的检查力度,以及重新协商中国邮政费用。许多对华鹰派人士认为,中国政府长期以来逃避经济承诺的历史最终将证明,他对一项几乎无助于改变中国国内行为的协议的怀疑是正确的。
        “I would be very skeptical of any significant agreement being made,” said Greg Autry, a professor at the University of Southern California’s Marshall School of Business and author with Mr. Navarro of the book “Death by China.” “If you’ve spent any time watching the Chinese, they don’t honor their agreements.”        “我对达成的任何重大协议都持怀疑态度,”南加州大学马歇尔商学院教授安一鸣(Greg Autry)说。他和纳瓦罗是《致命中国》(Death by China)一书的作者。“如果你花点时间观察中国人就知道他们不遵守协议。”
        Mr. Navarro’s skepticism first emerged in the 1970s while he was a Peace Corps volunteer building and repairing fish ponds in Thailand. He traveled extensively in Asia and said he observed the negative impact China was having on the economies of its neighbors. He became increasingly critical of how China’s trade practices were impacting the United States after its admission to the World Trade Organization in 2001, particularly as many of his business students complained of losing their jobs as a result of Chinese competition.
        Mr. Navarro’s views soon hardened and he began publishing a series of anti-China screeds, including “The Coming China Wars,” which Mr. Trump in 2011 listed as one of his favorite books about China, and “Death By China.”        纳瓦罗的观点很快变得强硬起来,他开始发表一系列反华的冗长作品,包括《即将到来的对华战争》(The Coming China Wars)和《致命中国》,2011年特朗普把前者列为他最喜欢的关于中国的书籍之一。
        In that book and the accompanying documentary, Mr. Navarro and Mr. Autry excoriated China for unscrupulous economic practices and manufacturing deadly products, like flammable toddler overalls and fake Viagra. They also faulted multinational companies like Walmart for using China to source cheap goods that were putting American manufacturers out of business.        在这本书和随附的纪录片中,纳瓦罗和安一鸣严厉谴责了中国肆无忌惮的经济行为和他们生产的致命产品,比如易燃的婴童背带裤和假伟哥。他们还指责沃尔玛等跨国企业利用中国采购廉价商品,导致美国制造商破产。
        Mr. Navarro’s views caught the attention of then-candidate Donald J. Trump, who shared similar opinions about China’s impact on American manufacturing and was seeking experts with unconventional views that matched his own. Mr. Navarro joined the campaign as an economic adviser in 2016 and quickly gained the trust of Mr. Trump, who refers to Mr. Navarro as “my tough guy on China.”        纳瓦罗的观点引起了当时还是总统候选人的特朗普的注意。对于中国给美国制造业带来的影响,特朗普有着类似看法,也正在寻找与他的非传统观点一致的专家。2016年,纳瓦罗以经济顾问的身份加入了特朗普的竞选活动,并很快赢得了他的信任,被他称为“我在中国问题上的硬汉”。
        “My whole philosophy in life and in this job is the Gretzky perspective — skate to where the puck is going to be, anticipate problems that the president is going to want to solve, and get on them,” Mr. Navarro said in an interview.        “我的人生哲学和这份工作的全部理念,就是像格雷茨基(即Wayne Gretzky,著名冰球运动员——译注)一样看问题——他总能预测冰球要去的地方,并且滑到那里,而我要预测总统想解决的问题,然后着手解决它们,”纳瓦罗在接受采访时曾说。
        Early on in Mr. Trump’s term, Mr. Navarro’s influence was not assured.        在特朗普任期初期,纳瓦罗的影响力还并不确切。
        Mr. Navarro, sometimes joined by Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, would recommend tariffs, arguing they would protect domestic industries, demonstrate the president was serious about reversing lopsided trade agreements and raise revenue. Mr. Cohn, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and former staff secretary Rob Porter regularly rebutted those arguments, saying tariffs would harm businesses, the stock market and the president’s re-election chances.
        纳瓦罗有建议开征关税,称这将保护国内产业,并表明总统对待扭转不平衡的贸易协定和增加收入的问题是认真的,它们有时也能得到商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)的支持。前国家经济委员会主任加里·科恩(Gary D. Cohn)、财政部长史蒂文·马努钦(Steven Mnuchin)和前白宫幕僚秘书罗伯特·波特(Robert Porter)经常反驳这些观点,称关税会损害企业、股市和总统连任的机会。
        To help buttress his case, Mr. Navarro developed a red, black and yellow chart outlining “China’s Acts, Policies, & Practices of Economic Aggression,” including cyberespionage and theft of American intellectual property. Mr. Navarro warned Mr. Trump that China had long promised — and failed — to alter its behavior and said tariffs were the most effective way to force Beijing to change.        为了支持自己的观点,纳瓦罗制作了一张红、黑、黄三色的图表,概述“中国经济侵略的法令、政策和实践”,包括网络间谍活动和窃取美国知识产权。纳瓦罗警告特朗普,中国长期以来一直承诺改变其行为,但却没能做到,他表示关税是迫使北京做出改变的最有效办法。
        By 2018, Mr. Trump was ready to pounce, and Mr. Navarro’s vision of confronting China became reality. An initial 25 percent tax on $34 billion of Chinese goods in July 2018 quickly escalated to tariffs on $360 billion of products with a threat to tax nearly every Chinese product.        到2018年,特朗普准备发起猛攻,纳瓦罗对抗中国的愿景变成了现实。在2018年7月对价值340亿美元的中国商品初征25%的关税后,贸易战很快升级为对价值3600亿美元的商品征税,并威胁要对几乎所有中国商品征税。
        The economic pressure brought Beijing to the negotiating table but Mr. Trump ultimately backed down, agreeing to a Phase 1 trade deal that would reduce some tariffs and remove the threat of additional levies in exchange for China buying more farm goods and giving American companies more access to the Chinese market. Almost none of the big structural changes that Mr. Navarro had pushed for were included. Mr. Trump has said those will be addressed in future talks with China, and many of the tariffs Mr. Navarro recommended will stay in place.        经济压力把北京逼上了谈判桌,但特朗普最终还是做出让步,同意了第一阶段的贸易协定,将会减少一些关税,并解除额外征税的威胁,以换取中国购买更多美国农产品,并给予美国企业更多进入中国市场的机会。纳瓦罗推动的所有重大结构性改革几乎都没有被包括在内。特朗普曾表示,这些问题将在未来与中国的谈判中得到解决,纳瓦罗建议的许多关税将保持不变。
        Mr. Navarro has found other ways to counter China. Earlier this year he waged a successful offensive against a global postal treaty that had allowed Chinese businesses to ship international packages at much cheaper rates than the United States.        纳瓦罗也找到了其它对抗中国的方式。今年早些时候,他成功发起了一场攻势,反对一项允许中国企业以比美国低得多的价格运送国际包裹的全球邮政条约。
        He’s helped step up inspections of Chinese packages to crack down on online counterfeiting and gotten involved with a project to revive American shipyards. Earlier this year, when executives at Crowley Maritime Corp. told Mr. Navarro that the Navy was in the process of procuring a transport ship from China that would be modified to American specifications, Mr. Navarro personally intervened to scuttle the bid.        他帮助加强了对中国包裹的检查,以打击网络假冒产品,并参与了一个重振美国造船厂的项目。今年早些时候,克罗利海运公司(Crowley Maritime Corp.)的高管告诉纳瓦罗,海军正在从中国采购一艘将按照美国规格进行改装的运输船,纳瓦罗亲自出面干预,阻止了竞标。
        He has come to view his office as akin to a special forces unit within the federal bureaucracy.        他开始将自己的办公室视为联邦行政机构内的一支特种部队。
        “With a small office, I learned early that the real power of being at the White House and the real effectiveness stems from leverage — on any given day, one or more government agencies are helping with this office’s mission,” he said. “You don’t need to be a big bloated bureaucracy. All you need be is lean and flat and nimble enough to harness agency resources for the president and his agenda.”        “有了这个小办公室,我很早就明白,在白宫真正的权力和效率都来自影响力——任何一天,都有一个或多个政府机构在帮这个办公室完成使命,”他说。“你不需要成为一个臃肿的官僚机构。你需要做的就是精简、扁平化和灵活地利用机构资源,为总统和他的议程服务。”

OK阅读网 版权所有(C)2017 | 联系我们