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空腹锻炼让你燃烧更多脂肪
Eating After You Exercise May Provide Added Fat-Burning Benefits

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-29 02:36



        Working out on an empty stomach could amplify the health benefits of the activity, according to a well-timed new study of the interplay of meal timing, metabolic health and moving. The study, which involved sedentary men and moderate cycling, suggests that whether and when we eat may affect how exercise affects us.        根据一项针对进餐时间、代谢健康和运动是如何相互影响的研究,空腹锻炼会增强运动带来的健康益处。这项研究选取久坐的男性作为研究对象,让他们进行适度的蹬自行车运动研究结果表明,我们是否、以及何时进餐可能会影响运动效果。
        In general, any exercise improves our health. But a wealth of recent science and personal experience indicate that different people can respond to similar exercise routines in different ways. Even if everyone completes the same amount of exercise, some people become more fit than others, or lose more weight, or gain greater control of their blood sugar.        一般而言,任何运动都对我们的健康有益。但是,最近有大量科学和个人经验表明,不同的人会以不同的方式对相似的运动程序做出反应。即使每个人都完成相同的运动量,有些人也会比其他人更健康、或者减少更多的体重,亦或者是更好地控制血糖。
        Most exercise scientists believe that our genetics, diets, physiques, temperaments and other subtle aspects of our lives act in concert to shape how our bodies react to exercise.        大多数运动科学家认为,我们的遗传、饮食、体质、性情和我们生活中的其他微妙方面共同影响着我们的身体对运动的反应方式。
        But some researchers suspect meal timing matters as well. Working muscles need fuel during exercise, mostly in the form of sugar (glucose) or fat. That fuel can come from our most recent meal, once its component sugars and fats reach our bloodstreams, or from our bodies’ stores of fats and sugars. We all have such stores, especially of fat, some of it residing in our muscles and marbling them like pricey sirloin.        但一些研究人员怀疑,进餐时间也很重要。在锻炼过程中,运动中的肌肉需要燃料——主要是以燃烧糖(葡萄糖)或脂肪的形式。这种燃料可以来自于我们最近吃进的食物,也可以来自我们身体中储存的脂肪和糖类。我们所有人都有脂肪储存,其中一些藏在肌肉中。
        This muscle fat becomes problematic if we accumulate too much of it. Fatty muscles do not respond well to the hormone insulin, which directs sugar from the blood into the muscles. As a result, excess fat can contribute to insulin resistance, high blood sugar levels and increased risks for Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic conditions.        如果积累得过多,这种肌肉脂肪就会造成问题。过多的脂肪会导致胰岛素抵抗、高血糖以及二型糖尿病和其他代谢疾病的风险增加。
        So, researchers at the University of Bath in England and other institutions began to wonder whether meal timing might influence how much muscle fat we burn during exercise, which would then affect the long-term metabolic consequences of exercise and help to explain, in part, why some people get more out of exercise than others.        因此,英国巴斯大学和其他机构的研究人员开始怀疑,进餐时间是否会影响我们在运动中能够燃烧多少肌肉脂肪,进而影响运动的长期代谢后果。
        To look into those issues, they recruited 30 overweight, sedentary men. (They plan to do a follow-up study with women.) The researchers tested the men’s fitness and insulin sensitivity and then divided them into three groups.        研究人员招募了30名久坐超重的男性,测试了他们的健康状况和胰岛素敏感度,然后将其分为三组。
        One, as a control, continued their usual lives. The other two groups started supervised exercise in the morning three times a week, riding stationary bicycles at a moderate pace while wearing monitors and masks that tracked their heart rates and the amount of fat and sugar they burned. The researchers also asked them periodically how they felt while riding.        作为对照,一组继续他们的惯常生活,而另外两组则每周三次在早上进行锻炼:其中一组在骑自行车前两小时喝下香草奶昔作为早餐,另一组人则饮用了类似口味的安慰剂饮料,该饮料中含有水、调味剂,但不含卡路里。换句话说,安慰剂组空着肚子骑车,但他们不知道。而在运动之后,每个人会得到他们此前没有喝到的那种饮料。
        One exercise group also downed a vanilla-flavored shake two hours before their ride (with no other breakfast) while the other group swallowed a similar-tasting placebo drink, containing water, flavoring and no calories. In other words, the placebo group rode on an empty stomach, but did not know it.        实验持续了六个星期,期间科学家一直在监测他们的心律、燃烧的脂肪和糖量。之后,科学家们计算了数字,得出了一些明显的差异。正如预期的那样,两个运动组的男性健康状况均有改善,但空腹骑车的安慰剂组在每次骑行中燃烧的脂肪大约是喝奶昔那一组的两倍。他们在骑车过程中燃烧了大约相同数量的卡路里,但空腹的那一组燃烧的卡路里更多来自脂肪。
        After exercise, each rider received the drink he had not previously swallowed. The riders who had fasted got the shake and the other group the placebo.        总体而言,这些发现表明,“你可以通过在早餐前锻炼来从运动中获得更多好处,而无需增加强度或时间,”巴斯大学生理学和营养学教授哈维尔·冈萨雷斯(Javier Gonzalez)说。他建议,个人可根据日程和个人喜好来安排锻炼时间,即使无法做到早起空腹锻炼,锻炼也总比不锻炼要好。
                
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