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十年来最有影响力的十部电影
The 10 Most Influential Films of the Decade (and 20 Other Favorites)

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-29 03:35



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        The most popular movies and the movies we love most aren’t always the ones that shape the industry, reflect the times or change the terms of cultural discourse — for better or worse. The films on the first list, whether we like them or not (and in some cases we very much did), made a difference in the world of entertainment and beyond. In a politicized time, their impact was often measured in ideological terms, by the arguments they started and the passions they inflamed. And at a time of blockbuster hegemony and streaming ascendancy, they also represented a business and an audience in constant and sometimes confusing flux.
        最受欢迎的影片和我们最喜爱的影片并不总是那些塑造行业、反映时代或改变文化话语措辞的影片——不论好坏。无论我们喜欢与否(某些情况下,我们非常喜欢),排在第一份名单上的影片,都在娱乐界乃至更广的范围产生了影响。在一个政治化的时代,往往是以意识形态的方式来衡量,通过它们所引发的争论以及它们所点燃的激情来衡量。在一个大片霸权和流媒体占据支配地位的时代,它们还代表了一个不断变化、有时令人感到莫名其妙的商业和受众。
        ‘American Sniper’ (2014)        《美国狙击手》(American Sniper,2014年)
        Clint Eastwood’s drama about the life and death of the Navy SEAL sniper Chris Kyle, released at Christmas in 2014, went on to dominate the next year, finishing on top of the domestic box office. It was the only release of the decade to accomplish that without being part of a franchise, a Disney property, or both. A testament to Eastwood’s mastery, the movie’s popularity challenged the fiction of a monolithically liberal Hollywood, even as it revealed the polarization of the American audience. With its pro-military, pro-gun flag waving — and fallen-warrior protagonist — “American Sniper” showed which way the political winds were howling.         2014年圣诞节上映的克林特·伊斯特伍德(Clint Eastwood)讲述海豹突击队狙击手克里斯·凯尔(Chris Kyle)生死故事的电影,第二年持续主导市场,成为美国国内票房的冠军。这是这十年来唯一一部既不属于系列片,也不属于迪士尼影片,或者两者兼而有之的电影。这部电影证明了伊斯特伍德的精湛技艺,它的受欢迎程度挑战了单一自由主义好莱坞的虚构,同时也揭示了美国观众的两极分化。《美国狙击手》以其亲军事、亲枪支拥有——以及倒下的主人公——展示了政治风向的呼啸。
        ‘The Avengers’ (2012)        《复仇者联盟》(The Avengers,2012年)
        Sequels weren’t new and neither were long, crowded, noisy superhero spectacles when this juggernaut landed. But “The Avengers,” released after Disney’s acquisition of Marvel Studios, was nonetheless a big industry bang: It heralded the dominance of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, where we all now live whether we like it or not.         续集并不新鲜,当这部巨制登陆时,它也不是一部冗长、拥挤、嘈杂的超级英雄电影。然而,在迪士尼收购漫威影业(Marvel Studios)之后上映的《复仇者联盟》,仍然是一个巨大的产业爆炸:它预示着漫威电影宇宙的统治地位,不管我们喜欢与否,如今都生活在其中。
        ‘Blackfish’ (2013)        《黑鲸》(Blackfish,2013年)
        Many documentaries that aim to raise awareness of a problem in the world preach to the mindful choir. Gabriela Cowperthwaite’s exposé of the abuse of orca whales at SeaWorld changed public perception, corporate behavior and the law.         许多旨在提高人们对世界上某一问题的认识的纪录片都是在给正念唱诗班布道(即向已有相同看法的人宣传同样的主张——译注)。加布里埃拉·考珀思韦特 (Gabriela Cowperthwaite)所揭露的海洋世界公园(SeaWorld)对虎鲸的虐待改变了公众的看法、公司的行为和法律。
        ‘Bridesmaids’ (2011)        《伴娘》(Bridesmaids,2011年)
        The shocking image of Maya Rudolph’s bride soiling her wedding dress made it clear that the director Paul Feig’s comedy — written by its star, Kristen Wiig, and Annie Mumolo — wasn’t just another smiley and sickly sweet wedding picture. The intestinal distress heard ’round the world helped demolish the sexist cliché that women can’t be funny. Yes, they can, laughing all the way to the bank. Just ask Melissa McCarthy, who went on to become one of the decade’s few genuine new movie stars.         玛雅·鲁道夫(Maya Rudolph)的新娘弄脏了她的婚纱,这张令人震惊的照片清楚地表明,导演保罗·费格(Paul Feig)的这部喜剧——由主演克里斯汀·韦格(Kristen Wiig)以及安妮·玛莫罗(Annie Mumolo)担任编剧——并不是另一部充满微笑和病态甜蜜的结婚照。全世界都听到的肠道不适帮助人们打破了性别歧视的陈词滥调,即女性不可能风趣。是的,她们可以,还能轻松赚大钱。问问梅丽莎·麦卡锡(Melissa McCarthy)就知道,她后来成为这十年中为数不多的真正的新电影明星之一。
        ‘Frozen’ (2013)        《冰雪奇缘》(Frozen,2013年)
        When Elsa belted “Let It Go” in Disney’s animated musical, she didn’t only claim her power, she announced the might of the female moviegoing audience, itself one of the decade’s biggest industry stories. That audience helped make “Frozen” one of the highest-grossing animated releases in history, reviving and revising Disney’s fairy-tale tradition for a new generation.         当艾莎(Elsa)在迪斯尼的音乐动画片中高歌一曲《随它吧》(Let It Go)时,她不仅展示了自己的力量,还宣布了女性观影观众的力量,这本身就是十年来最大的行业故事之一。这些观众帮助《冰雪奇缘》成为史上最卖座的动画电影之一,为新一代的观众重新发扬和修正了迪士尼的童话传统。
        ‘Get Out’ (2017)        《逃出绝命镇》(Get Out,2017年)
        Jordan Peele’s art-house freakout (and box-office breakout) is a brilliant genre mash-up — the supreme example of a new wave in horror cinema — as well as a ferocious rebuke to the (white) canard that the Obama era had ushered in a post-racial United States. Opening soon after Donald J. Trump’s inauguration, it felt like an unnerving sign of the times, a blend of satire and horror so deft that it was hard to say which was which.         乔丹·皮尔(Jordan Peele)的这部艺术惊悚电影(以及票房突破)是一部杰出的混搭片——恐怖电影新浪潮的最高典范,同时也是对奥巴马时代在美国开辟了后种族主义时代这一(白人的)不实之词的有力驳斥。该片在特朗普就职典礼后不久上映,给人的感觉就像是一个令人不安的时代标志,它巧妙地融合了讽刺和恐怖,以至于很难说清哪个是哪个。
        ‘The Hunger Games: Catching Fire’ (2013)        《饥饿游戏2:星火燎原》(The Hunger Games: Catching Fire,2013年)
        The second installment in the franchise based on Suzanne Collins’s Y.A. series cemented Jennifer Lawrence’s status as a global movie star and — with “Frozen,” another of that year’s hits — reconfirmed the power of women at the box office. “Catching Fire” also became the first female-led movie to top the yearly domestic box office in a very, very long time. Popular with boys as well as girls, Katniss Everdeen was a new kind of pop-culture archetype, a rebel and a warrior rather than a princess.         这部根据苏珊·柯林斯(Suzanne Collins)的青少年系列小说改编的系列电影的第二部,巩固了(Jennifer Lawrence)作为全球电影明星的地位——与当年另一部热门影片《冰雪奇缘》一起——再次确认了女性在票房上的实力。《星火燎原》也成为了很长一段时间以来,第一部女性领衔的年度国内票房冠军影片。无论是在男孩还是女孩中间,凯特尼斯·伊夫狄恩(Katniss Everdeen)都很受欢迎,她是一种新型的流行文化原型,是一名叛逆者和战士,而不是公主。
        ‘Moonlight’ (2016)        《月光男孩》(Moonlight,2016年)
        At the 89th Academy Awards, Barry Jenkins’s “Moonlight” made Oscar history: among its multiple firsts, the movie — a highly personal, low-budget project influenced by European and Asian art cinema — was the first best-picture winner from an African-American director. Its triumph signaled a shift in the industry after decades of systemic racism.         在第89届奥斯卡颁奖典礼上,巴里·詹金斯(Barry Jenkins)的《月光男孩》创造了奥斯卡的历史:在它的多项第一中,该片——一部高度个人化、低成本的电影,受到欧洲和亚洲艺术电影的影响——是第一部非裔美国导演执导的最佳影片获得者。它的成功标志着该行业在经历了数十年的系统性种族主义后发生了转变。
        ‘Okja’ (2017)        《玉子》(Okja,2017年)
        Bong Joon Ho’s movie about a girl and her genetically modified super-pig was the Netflix release that shook up the industry, further blurring the divide between big and little screens. Its debut at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival set off a debate about Netflix’s place in cinema that continues to rage. Bong’s own cinematic standing, by contrast, only became more indisputable. Two years later, he returned to Cannes with “Parasite,” winning the top prize.        奉俊昊的这部电影讲述一个女孩和她的转基因超级猪的故事,Netflix的这部电影震撼了整个行业,进一步模糊了大银幕和小屏幕之间的界限。它在2017年戛纳电影节上的首次亮相引发了一场关于Netflix在电影业地位的争论,这场争论仍在激烈进行。相比之下,奉俊昊自己在电影界的地位变得更加无可争议。两年后,他带着《寄生上流》(Parasite)回到戛纳,赢得了最高奖项。
        ‘Star Wars: The Force Awakens’ (2015)        《星球大战:原力觉醒》(Star Wars: The Force Awakens,2015年)
        The franchise, now part of the Disney Empire, struck back with J.J. Abrams at the helm. Inaugurating a new trilogy, this space opera tried to recapture the pop energy of the original three films, while finding more room for women and nonwhite characters. The result was globally popular, but it also stirred up a backlash that exposed — not for the first or last time — an ugly, reactionary undercurrent in modern fan culture.         该系列电影如今是迪士尼帝国的一部分,它在J·J·艾布拉姆斯(J.J.Abrams)的掌舵之下展开了反击。作为新三部曲的开创之作,这部太空歌剧试图再现前三部电影的流行能量,同时为女性和非白人角色找到更多的空间。这一结果在全球都很受欢迎,但它也激起了强烈的反弹,暴露了——不是第一次,也不是最后一次——现代粉丝文化中丑陋、反动的暗流。
                
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