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U.S. Offers Huawei Reprieve on Monday, but May Crack Down on Friday

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-19 02:45

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        WASHINGTON — This week began with the Trump administration giving Huawei, the Chinese telecom giant, a reprieve. It will most likely end with a different set of regulators voting to make it more difficult for the company to do business in America.        华盛顿——本周伊始,特朗普政府给了中国电信巨头华为一个喘息的机会。它很可能会以不同的监管机构投票表决,使这家企业在美国更难开展业务而告终。
        The Commerce Department said Monday it would extend for 90 days the license that allows companies to export goods to Huawei, despite its placement on a government blacklist that bans it from doing business with American partners.        商务部周一表示,将把允许企业向华为出口商品的许可证延长90天,尽管华为被列入美国政府的黑名单,禁止与美国合作伙伴开展业务。
        On Friday, the Federal Communications Commission will vote on whether to ban wireless providers from buying Huawei equipment with federal subsidies meant to expand broadband access to underserved areas.        联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission,简称FCC)将于周五投票,决定是否禁止无线供应商利用联邦补贴购买华为设备——设立该补贴的目的是将宽带接入扩大到服务不足的地区。
        The whiplash-inducing week reflects Huawei’s tenuous position in Washington as the Trump administration, along with lawmakers from both parties, tries to cut off the company’s access to American technology and markets over national security concerns. In addition to the blacklist, which bans American companies from selling technology and other products to Huawei, policymakers have tried to stop federal agencies from doing business with the company.        这风云变幻的一周反映出华为在华盛顿的脆弱地位,特朗普政府与两党议员以国家安全考虑为由,试图切断该公司获取美国技术和市场的渠道。除禁止美国公司向华为出售技术及其他产品的黑名单外,政策制定者还试图阻止联邦机构与该公司开展业务。
        The fate of Huawei — one of China’s most visible tech companies — has also become a bargaining chip in Mr. Trump’s trade war with Beijing. The president has routinely linked the company’s fate with trade talks, and his willingness to ease restrictions on Huawei in exchange for other concessions has worried China critics, who say it is unwise to mix national security and trade negotiations.        作为中国最受瞩目的科技企业之一,华为的命运也成了特朗普与北京贸易战中的一个谈判筹码。总统经常将华为的命运与贸易谈判联系在一起,他愿意放松对华为的限制,以换取其他让步,这令中国的批评人士感到担忧,他们认为将国家安全与贸易谈判混为一谈是不明智的。
        Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the Democratic leader, said Monday that if Mr. Trump and the Commerce Department “agree that Huawei is a national security threat, they should start acting like it.”        纽约州参议员、民主党领袖查克·舒默(Chuck Schumer)周一表示,如果特朗普和商务部“一致认为华为是国家安全威胁,他们就应该开始采取相应的行动”。
        This is the second time the Trump administration has extended the license allowing American companies to continue exporting to Huawei. The previous extension was set to expire on Monday and this next reprieve will end on Feb. 16, 2020.        这是特朗普政府第二次延长许可证,允许美国企业继续向华为出口。前一次延期将于周一到期,这一次延期将于2020年2月16日截止。
        The Commerce Department said a second extension was necessary to avoid service disruptions in rural areas, where some carriers use Huawei equipment.        商务部表示,有必要进行第二次延期,以避免农村地区的服务中断,那里的一些运营商使用华为的设备。
        “The Temporary General License extension will allow carriers to continue to service customers in some of the most remote areas of the United States who would otherwise be left in the dark,” Wilbur Ross, the commerce secretary, said in a statement. He said the agency would still “rigorously monitor sensitive technology exports” for national security risks.        “临时通用许可证(Temporary General License)的延期将使运营商继续为美国一些最偏远地区的客户提供服务,否则他们将陷入无网可用的状态,”商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)在声明中说。他还表示,商务部将继续“严格监控敏感技术的出口”,防范国家安全方面的风险。
        But the extension will also benefit some large American tech companies, like Google, that supply Huawei with certain components for its products. Those companies have also urged the administration to allow firms to continue doing business with Huawei.        但延期也会让一些大型美国科技公司受益,比如向华为的某些产品供应零部件的谷歌。这些公司还敦促政府允许企业继续与华为开展业务。
        The temporary reprieve did little to satisfy Huawei, which has protested its inclusion on a United States “entity list” that the administration has increasingly used to block Chinese tech companies.        暂时性的延缓几乎没有让华为感到满意,该公司曾抗议将华为列入美国的“实体名单”,本届政府越来越多地利用这个手段来封杀中国科技企业。
        “Extending the Temporary General License won’t have a substantial impact on Huawei’s business either way,” a Huawei spokesman said in a statement. “This decision does not change the fact that Huawei continues to be treated unfairly.”        “无论如何,延长临时通用许可证都不会对华为的业务产生实质性影响,”华为发言人在声明中称。“这一决定不会改变华为继续受到不公正对待的事实。”
        The Chinese company has also been pushing back on the F.C.C. measure, which would make it impossible for wireless carriers to buy equipment from Huawei or ZTE, another Chinese telecom company, using federal subsidies meant to expand broadband access.        这家中国公司还一直在抵制FCC的措施,那项措施使得无线运营商无法利用旨在扩大宽带接入的联邦补贴,从华为或另一家中国电信公司中兴购买设备。
        Huawei has criticized the F.C.C. over the proposal and called it “unlawful” in a filing at the agency this month. The F.C.C. rules could grow to cover other companies that are deemed national security threats, as well.        华为对该提议提出了批评,并在本月提交给FCC的文件中称其为“不合法”。FCC的规定可能还会扩大到其他被视为国家安全威胁的企业。
        Ajit Pai, the agency’s chairman, has said the move is crucial as America and other countries build out the next generation of wireless networks, known as 5G. The Trump administration has waged a global campaign to prevent Huawei from building that network, arguing that the company poses a national security risk because of its ties to China and new laws that will give Beijing the power to spy on networks that companies like Huawei have helped build and maintain.        FCC主席阿吉特·帕伊(Ajit Pai)表示,在美国及其他国家构建下一代无线网络之际,也就是所谓5G,此举至关重要。特朗普政府发起了一场阻止华为建设该网络的全球运动,认为由于它与中国的关系,以及新法律将赋予北京对华为等公司帮助建设和维护的网络进行监视的权力,该公司对国家安全构成了风险。
        Huawei has disputed those allegations and said it did not and would not spy on behalf of the Chinese government.        华为否认了这些指控,并表示华为从未也不会替中国政府从事间谍活动。
        The F.C.C. measure has drawn support from Attorney General William Barr, who said in a Nov. 13 letter that the move could signal to other countries that they should not use gear from the companies.        FCC的措施得到了司法部长威廉·巴尔(William Barr)的支持,他在11月13日的一封信中表示,此举可能会向其他国家发出信号,即他们不应使用这些公司的设备。
        “At this critical moment, while the world decides where to place its trust, we should not signal that Huawei and ZTE are anything other than a threat to our collective security,” Mr. Barr said.        “在这一关键时刻,在全世界决定将信任托付于哪一方之际,我们不应当发出华为和中兴对我们的集体安全构成威胁之外的任何信号,”巴尔说。
        Rural carriers have also pushed back on the F.C.C.’s proposal, saying in addition to restricting future network development it could make it hard to maintain existing equipment.        农村运营商也对FCC的提议予以了反击,称除限制未来网络的发展之外,这可能会使现有设备难以维护。
        In some cases, rural providers have already bought Huawei gear because it is more affordable. Providers often also rely on federal subsidies to serve rural, isolated areas.        在某些情况下,农村地区的供应商已经购买了华为设备,因为价格更易负担。供应商也经常依靠联邦补贴为农村偏远地区提供服务。
        The measure that the F.C.C.’s five commissioners will vote on Friday will address only future purchases of Huawei and ZTE equipment, but it also begins an examination of an even more loaded question: What to do with the equipment that has already been installed?        FCC的五名委员将于周五投票表决的措施将只针对未来购买华为和中兴设备的问题,但它也开始审视一个牵扯更广的问题:如何处置已经安装的设备?
        Rural carriers say any requirement that they rip out existing Huawei gear could be very expensive and have called for financial support should they have to replace the equipment they’ve already purchased. A House committee will vote Tuesday on a bill that would allocate $1 billion to help carriers replace the equipment.        农村运营商表示,任何让他们拆除现有华为设备的要求都可能非常昂贵,如果必须更换已经购买的设备,他们还要求提供资金支持。众议院一个委员会将于周二对一项法案进行表决,该法案将拨款10亿美元,帮助运营商更换设备。
        “We have to ensure that these smaller and more rural providers have the support they need to stay away from this equipment,” said Representative Frank Pallone, a Democrat from New Jersey who is chairman of the House’s Energy and Commerce Committee. “And I don’t think that’s going to happen unless we have a fund for replacement.”        “我们必须确保这些规模较小、更多来自农村的供应商拥有远离这些设备所需的支持,”新泽西州民主党众议员、众议院能源和商务委员会(Energy and Commerce Committee)主席弗兰克·帕隆 (Frank Pallone)说。“我认为,除非我们有用于更换设备的资金,否则这种情况不会发生。”

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